Our speaker will be Sarah Wiggins who is leader of Tearfund's global advocacy team who work to mobilise Christians to care for God's creation and take action, in the UK and all around the world. She is currently involved in campaigns around renewable energy, working to change unjust public policy, practices and systems affecting the world's poorest people and mobilising and organising groups of people around the world to take action on environmental and social justice issues.
We will also be holding a market place where you will be able to find out about local organisations offering opportunities to volunteer or make lifestyle changes, get involved in advocacy on environmental issues and hear about our eco-church journey so far.
On This Day of the Moon Mission: ‘One Small Step’
We will finish with a brief reflection and prayer and then turn the lights out at 8. Add to Calendar. View Map View Map. Find out more about how your privacy is protected. Mar Sales Ended. Event description. Description The Eco Church Group at St Paul's Salisbury invites you to an evening focusing on the small steps we can take to make a real difference to the world around us as we think about our part in caring for creation. Read more Read less.
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Importantly, we have a renewed will to go back. Presented here is a grand view of the future, envisioning the moon as a scientific outpost, a deep space training facility, a tourist destination and, eventually, the first stop in humanity's ascent deeper into our solar system. That mission, known as Artemis 3, will mark a number of milestones in lunar exploration, including putting the first woman on the moon.
Of the current crop of 12 female astronauts active with NASA, one will plant her boot in the lunar regolith during Artemis 3. On Earth, the triumphant return will be watched live by more than 3 billion people on TV, across the web and on their phones. Unlike Apollo 11, broadcast to the world in grainy black-and-white, the new mission takes advantage of modern camera technology, giving viewers the most impressive look at the lunar surface yet.
It's not just humans returning to the moon, however, and NASA isn't the only space agency going there. China's Chang'e program has already been wildly successful and during the s it continues to land multiple robots across the moon before extending the program to incorporate human lunar exploration.
By the end of the decade, the first Chinese astronauts are preparing to make their way to the surface of the moon. Getting to the moon is still an expensive and difficult process, but we've become a little better at it.
The Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway, an international space station in orbit around the moon, begins construction in and will be approaching completion by The eight-year project has its detractors , but with the backing of multiple space agencies, it aims to be a stepping stone for humans to escape low Earth orbit and get into space. It consists of a series of modules designed for habitation, experimentation and provides a "spaceport" of sorts, where spacecraft can be refueled and resupplied.
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With the Gateway in orbit, our understanding of the moon and its resources dramatically increases as the surface and subsurface are surveyed, probed and analyzed. Returning humans to the moon is just the start of hundreds of scientific experiments focused on sustaining our presence there. Initially, you'll see robotic missions, which will make initial measurements, do some science in new locations, [and] explore things like the ice that we know now is at the lunar poles," says James Carpenter from the European Space Agency's directorate of human and robotic exploration.
One of the most important short-term goals is improving our knowledge of the water ice located at the lunar poles. Direct evidence of this water ice was found within impact craters in and our initial intrepid steps on the moon will focus on how we can use this water, sustainably, to aid our exploration efforts. Carpenter explains there's a lot of work to do during this decade because we don't know a lot about the distribution or accessibility of the water, only that it will be a critical resource for extending our stay.
Private companies, like Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin, are likely to start shuttling the mega-rich into Earth orbit in the early s. However, Sarah Pearce, deputy director of astronomy and space science at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, suggests it might be a stretch to see moon tourism by the end of the decade.
However, it's Elon Musk's plans that could begin to turn the moon into an attractive -- albeit expensive -- option for lunar tourists over the next five years. Musk and SpaceX plan to ferry Japanese billionaire Yusaku Maezawa and a handful of artists to the moon in , aboard the company's next-gen Starship rocket, for an undisclosed sum of money. Musk has even suggested Starship could get to the moon as early as At the 60th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing in , private citizens will have visited the moon, but we will have only just scratched the surface of what humans can achieve there.
Like the 50th anniversary celebrations in , the Apollo 11 milestone will be celebrated by a handful of highly trained scientists and astronauts within a space station and by those making their way down to the lunar poles.
As we launch into the next decade -- the s -- our focus shifts to maintaining our presence on lunar soil by taking advantage of the moon's natural resources. Lunar explorers -- both man and machine -- begin to utilize the moon's resources to maximum effect early in the decade.
One Small Step Takes a New Look at the Space Race
On the surface and in orbit, astronauts are now priming themselves for an onward journey deeper into the solar system and their first steps on another planet altogether. However, to reach that goal, a number of key technological advances must occur. Chief among them is harnessing the natural resources present on the moon to reduce the costs of off-Earth exploration. This process is known as in situ resource utilization, or ISRU, and it's critical to expanding our capabilities on the moon. Scaling up ISRU will not only require a human touch, but development of artificial intelligence to autonomously work and mine lunar resources.
NASA's Resolve rover would "find, characterize and map ice and other substances in almost permanently shadowed areas. And the most obvious resource on the craggy face of the moon is the dust and rock that litters the lunar soil. The fine lunar dust can be particularly nasty for human lungs but it is rich in stuff we just can't find as easily on Earth. It's abundant in helium-3 , a proposed clean energy source, and its rocks contain an important mineral known as anorthite. Composed of a handful of notable elements, anorthite could be used for life support systems and construction, forming the backbone of a strong lunar manufacturing industry.
Collecting and smelting anorthite gives us two key ingredients: oxygen and aluminum. Another abundant lunar mineral, ilmenite, could also be used to extract oxygen and would supply metals such as titanium and iron. Harnessing the power of the sun to power machinery and mining equipment will allow us to pull these valuable elements from the very ground we walk on with minimal disturbance to the natural environment.
Extracting oxygen on the moon is immensely helpful because humans will still need to breathe in , but it also forms a valuable component of rocket fuel. Combining it with hydrogen extracted from water ice deposits found at the lunar poles provides us with propellant, which makes the moon a very attractive spot to stop over as we head deeper into space.
But there is a downside. As we begin to visit the moon more frequently, utilizing more and more resources, pressure will mount for greater oversight of human activities on the surface. As many new nations plant their flags in the soil for the first time, our currently optimistic view of a peaceful, prosperous moon devoid of nationalism is likely to be challenged.
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The Outer Space Treaty , which governs activities in space, does not prevent exploitation of the moon's ample resources. Furthermore, the Moon Treaty , designed to ensure activities on the moon and other celestial bodies conform to international law, is not currently ratified by any of the major spacefaring nations.
Neither treaty provides protection for humanity's most important lunar archaeological locations: the six Apollo landing sites. The site of humanity's first off-Earth exploration: Will we be able to preserve these sites on the moon? By , international agreements will designate the myriad sites of the Apollo landings as "Solar System Heritage Sites" -- the first of their kind. Tranquility Base, the location of Armstrong and Aldrin's first steps, is regarded as a sacred location, protected as stoically as the Pyramids of Giza or the Great Wall of China are on Earth.
A more difficult proposition will be how to reconcile our science objectives with those tailored for exploration.
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If new sites on the moon, such as the lunar poles, do provide us with some startling evidence of other life in the solar system, we'll be required to rethink our strategies all over again. While space agencies around the world will busy themselves with science and sustainability on the moon, Mars provides another challenge altogether. Elon Musk's SpaceX is aiming at for the company's first mission to the red planet, with human landing to occur in That seems an ambitious goal at present.
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